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Marine Aquaria and
Miniature Reefs


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Dynamic Aquaria : Building
Living Ecosystems


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Aquarium Plants: The
Practical Guide


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Handbook of Fish Diseases











Conversions, Calculations & Data

Temperature Conversion

Fahrenheit = 9/5Centigrade + 32      or    Centigrade = 5/9(Fahrenheit - 32)
C
15
20
25
30
35
 F
59
68
77
86
95
Water Hardness
1 German degree (dKH or dGH) = 17.9 ppm 
degrees "General Hardness" (GH) = 0.056 ppm CaCO3 
degrees "Carbonate Hardness/Alkalinity" (KH) = 0.056 ppm CaCO3 

US/Metric Conversions
1 ppm = 1mg/L 
1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 gm 
1 pound (lb) = 16 oz = .4536 kg 
1 Liter = 0.264 Gallon 
1 Gallon = 3.89 Liter 
1 Gallon = 231 cu inches (in^3) 
Gallons   Liters
5 1/2  = 21.4
10 = 38.9
20 = 77.8
30 = 116.7 
45 = 175
50 = 194.5
75 = 291.7
90 = 350
120 = 466.8

1 Meter = 39.4 inches 
1 Inch = 2.54 cm 
1 Foot = 12 inches = .3048 m 
1 Yard = 36 inches = .9144 m 
1 Mile = 1760 yards = 1.6093 km 
1 square inch (in^2) = 6.4516 cm^2 
1 square foot (ft^2) = 144 in^2 = .093 m^2 
1 cubic inch (in^3) = 16.387 cm^3 
1 cubic foot (ft^3) = 1728 in^3 = .028 m^3

Tank Size, Weight & Pressure Calculations

NOTE 1: The weights used in this section are approximate and to be used for 
estimating only!!! 
NOTE 2: The calculated weights DO NOT include the additional weight of your 
stand or interior decorations! (ie. rocks, ornaments, gravel, etc.) 

1 gallon of H2O = 8.6 lbs 

Example: 
30 Gallon tank => (36 x 12 x 16) = 6912 in^3 
6912 in^3 / 231 in^3/Gallon = 29.92 Gallons of H2O 
29.92 Gallons x 8.6 lbs/Gallon = 257.33 lbs of H2O 
257.33 lbs of H2O + 43 lbs empty tank weight = 300.33 lbs full weight 

Tank Size Dimensions
(inches) (L x W x H) 
Empty Weight
Glass Tank(lbs)
Full Weight  
(lbs)
5 1/2 Gallon 16 x 8 x 10 7 54.6
10 Gallon 20 x 10 x 12 11 100.3
10 Hexagon 14 x 12 x 18 12 124.6
20 High 24 x 12 x 16 25 196.5
20 Hexagon 18 x 16 x 20 23 237.4
30 Gallon 36 x 12 x 16 43 300.3
45 Gallon 36 x 12 x 23 66 435.9
50 Gallon 36 x 19 x 19 100 583.8
60 Hexagon 27 x 24 x 29 110 809.6
65 Gallon 36 x 19 x 24 126 737
75 Gallon 48 x 18 x 21 140 815.5
90 Gallon 48 x 18 x 25 160 964
120 Gallon 48 x 24 x 25 215 1287.2
150 Gallon 72 x 18 x 28 338 1688.9
180 Gallon 72 x 24 x 25 338 1946.3

The pressure at the bottom of the tank: (psi) = Total Weight / Tank bottom area 
(L x W).

Example: 
30 Gallon tank => 36 in x 12 in = 432 in^2 
psi = 300.3 lbs / 432in^2 =0.695 psi 
0.695 psi x 144 in^2/foot^2 = 100 psf 

NOTE 3: 
Standard building code uses 75 psf loading on a single wood joist. Therefore, in 
the above example, you should actually place this tank across 2 floor joists. Don't 
forget the additional weight of your tank stand, gravel, and interior decorations.



                                                           

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